MAHATMA GANDHI (born Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi; 1869–1948) was an Indian nationalist and spiritual leader. In his opposition to the British rule he pursued a policy of passive resistance and non-violent civil disobedience. He was president of the Indian National Congress (1925–34) and although he never held government office, he was regarded as the country's supreme political and spiritual leader. He was assassinated by a Hindu fundamentalist who was outraged by Gandhi’s agreement to the creation of the state of Pakistan.